GraphQL in Magento 2: A Comprehensive Guide to Building Custom GraphQL APIs


Magento 2 is a powerful e-commerce platform that provides various APIs for developers to integrate and extend its functionalities. One of the key APIs available in Magento 2 is GraphQL, which offers a flexible and efficient way to fetch data from the server. In this article, we will explore GraphQL in Magento 2, its benefits over REST API and SOAP API, and how to create custom GraphQL APIs, including mutations.

1. What is GraphQL?

GraphQL is an open-source query language for APIs that was developed by Facebook. It allows clients to request specific data from the server using a single request, reducing the number of round trips required. With GraphQL, clients have the flexibility to define the structure of the response, receiving only the data they need, which leads to improved performance and reduced bandwidth usage.

2. Advantages of GraphQL

  • Efficiency: GraphQL minimizes over-fetching and under-fetching of data by allowing clients to specify the exact data requirements.
  • Flexibility: Clients have control over the structure of the response, enabling them to request multiple related resources in a single query.
  • Versioning: GraphQL provides backward-compatible changes to the API schema, eliminating the need for versioning multiple endpoints.
  • Real-time Updates: GraphQL supports real-time data updates using subscriptions, enabling instant updates without the need for constant polling.

3. GraphQL vs. REST API and SOAP API


REST (Representational State Transfer) is an extensively espoused architectural style for designing networked applications. REST APIs use predefined endpoints to interact with resources. While REST APIs have been the standard for a long time, they often suffer from over-fetching and under-fetching of data due to fixed response structures.


SOAP (Simple Object Access Protocol) is a messaging protocol that allows programs running on different operating systems to communicate with each other. SOAP APIs use XML for data exchange and have a more rigid structure compared to REST and GraphQL. However, they can be more complex to implement and have a higher overhead.

GraphQL overcomes some of the limitations of REST and SOAP APIs by providing a flexible and efficient way to fetch data, making it an ideal choice for modern e-commerce applications.

4. Getting Started with GraphQL in Magento 2

4.1 Enabling GraphQL in Magento 2

To start using GraphQL in Magento 2, you need to ensure that the GraphQL module is enabled in your Magento installation. You can enable it through the command line or the Magento Admin Panel.

4.2 GraphQL Schemas and Types

GraphQL uses a strong type system to define schemas and data structures. In Magento 2, schemas are defined using the GraphQL schema definition language (SDL). You can define custom types, queries, and mutations in the schema to expose your data and operations to clients.

4.3 Querying Data with GraphQL

Once the GraphQL module is enabled and the schema is defined, you can start querying data from Magento 2 using GraphQL. GraphQL queries are structured requests that specify the fields and relationships of the data you want to retrieve.

5. Creating Custom GraphQL APIs.

(Example:- Retrieve a list of featured products)

Magento 2 allows you to extend the default GraphQL schema and create custom queries and mutations. This enables you to expose additional data and functionality tailored to your specific business requirements.

Step 1 :- Create a Module

Step 2 :- app/code/Lokesh/GraphQl/Model/Resolver/FeaturedProducts.php

namespace Lokesh\GraphQl\Model\Resolver;

use Magento\Framework\GraphQl\Query\ResolverInterface;

class FeaturedProducts implements ResolverInterface
    public function resolve()
        // Implement logic to fetch featured products from your store
        $featuredProducts = [
                'id' => 1,
                'name' => 'Product 1',
                'price' => 10.99,
                'image' => '',
                'id' => 2,
                'name' => 'Product 2',
                'price' => 19.99,
                'image' => '',
            // Add more products as needed

        return $featuredProducts;

Step 3 :- app/code/Lokesh/GraphQl/etc/schema.graphqls

type Query {
    featuredProducts: [FeaturedProduct] @resolver(class: "Lokesh\\GraphQl\\Model\\Resolver\\FeaturedProducts")

type FeaturedProduct {
    id: Int
    name: String
    price: Float
    image: String

Clear the Cache: After creating the custom GraphQL API, clear the Magento cache using the command php bin/magento cache:flush to ensure the changes take effect.

Result :-

  featuredProducts {

6. Working with Mutations in GraphQL

Mutations allow clients to modify data on the server-side. In Magento 2, you can create custom mutations to handle operations such as creating, updating, and deleting data.

6.1 Creating Mutation Types

Mutation types define the structure of the data that can be modified through mutations. You can define input types to pass arguments to mutations and specify the fields that can be updated.

6.2 Implementing Mutation Resolvers

Similar to query resolvers, mutation resolvers define the logic for handling mutations. They receive the input arguments and perform the necessary operations to modify the data.

6.3 Testing Mutations

Magento 2 provides tools and libraries for testing GraphQL mutations. You can write unit tests to ensure that your mutations work as expected and maintain the integrity of your data.

7. Best Practices for Using GraphQL in Magento 2

To make the most out of GraphQL in Magento 2, consider the following best practices:

7.1 Keep Queries Specific and Granular

Avoid retrieving excessive data in a single query. Keep your queries specific and granular to fetch only the required data, optimizing performance.

7.2 Caching and Performance Optimization

Implement caching mechanisms to improve response times. Use Magento’s built-in caching features and consider integrating additional caching layers if needed.

7.3 Security Considerations

Ensure that your GraphQL APIs are secure by implementing proper authentication and authorization mechanisms. Follow Magento’s security guidelines to protect sensitive data.

8. Conclusion

GraphQL provides a modern and efficient way to fetch and manipulate data in Magento 2. By leveraging its flexibility and power, you can create custom GraphQL APIs tailored to your e-commerce business needs. With GraphQL, you can optimize performance, reduce bandwidth usage, and provide a seamless experience for your customers.

Read more – Adobe Official

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